This page describes common problems that users of Debian on the QNAP TS-410, TS-410U, TS-412, TS-419P, TS-419P+, TS-419P II, TS-419U, TS-420 and TS-421 have run into. If you have any problems with your QNAP device, either while trying to install Debian or when running Debian, please look through this page carefully to see whether you can find a solution. If your problem is not covered here, feel free to contact the debian-arm list for help.
If you cannot connect to the Debian installer via SSH, make sure that you connect the Ethernet cable to the correct port. Ethernet port numeration differs between the QNAP firmware and Debian. Under Debian,
eth0 is the port marked with "LAN2". On the TS-419P, this is the lower (and not the upper) connector!
Formatting the disk may take a long time, especially if you have a large disk. Unfortunately, the progress bar is not updated while the disk is being formatted so you may think that it is stuck (at 33%). If this happens, just be patient. The installer is in fact formatting your disk.
There can be many reasons why a QNAP running Debian no longer boots, ranging from a broken disk, to a bad upgrade or configuration. Unfortunately, it's often impossible to say what the problem is without the use of a serial console. The best solution is to connect a serial console to see what the problem is but not everyone can do that.
Before you do anything, you should listen. Maybe your QNAP is performing its regular filesystem check and this will delay the boot process. This delay can be considerable if you have a large disk. If you can hear that your hard drive is being accessed, just wait for a few hours.
If your hard drive is quiet and Debian doesn't start, you should try is to connect your USB drive to another PC and to check the log files:
sudo mount /dev/sda2 /mnt
Now you can look at the files in
/mnt/var/log, in particular at the file
syslog. If this file doesn't contain any information about the last boot attempt (which is quite likely), you can enable
bootlogd which will record early boot messages:
sudo sed -i "s/BOOTLOGD_ENABLE=No/BOOTLOGD_ENABLE=yes/" /mnt/etc/default/bootlogd sudo umount /mnt
Connect the drive to your QNAP, boot it, wait a few minutes, then turn it off and connect the drive to your PC again and mount it. Now look at the file
/mnt/var/log/boot which might tell you more.
One common cause for boot problems is related to filesystem checks and running
fsck over all partitions may help. There are several reasons why this might help. For example, the Linux ext3 filesystem has to be checked periodically. Even though Debian has been configured not to prompt the user during the filesystem check, it might still do so in case of serious errors. Without a serial console, this prompt means that your QNAP will hang waiting for user input.
Turn your QNAP off, connect the disk to another machine running Linux and run
fsck over all partitions containing data. On a normal Debian installation, this includes
sudo fsck /dev/sda1 sudo fsck /dev/sda2 sudo fsck /dev/sda6